Citation Documentation

This is a draft; recommendations have not been finalized.

Publication Documentation

How to cite specimens

For Users

For Curators

At the moment, there are no clear universal guidelines for citing specimens, and there are potential complications for all specimen identifiers. When providing guidance for citing multiple specimens, the following should be considered in addition to the nature of the material (or data) being used, the nature of the work being done, and anything else which might effect how data and specimens (or samples) are ultimately accessed, both digitally and physically. The Arctos Working Group is available discuss specific use cases and problem-solve with you.


When choosing an identifier, the following should be considered:

Possible Solutions

These are presented roughly in order of preference.

Full specimen GUID (

DOI (for specimen GUID -

Locked Archives (

DOI (for locked archives -

Unlocked Archives (

“DWC Triplet” (UAM:Mamm:12)

Saved Searches (

Projects (Beringian Coevolution Project (BCP);

Random “local” identifiers (“12”)

These include AF, NK, ALAAC, collector numbers, bare catalog numbers, or catalog number with nonstandard prefix (“Alaska 12”)

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